Software development

What Is Kubernetes And How Is It Used?

Kubernetes serves as the deployment and lifecycle management tool for containerized applications, and separate tools are used to manage infrastructure resources. Kubernetes is a robust open source orchestration tool developed by Google for operating microservices or containerized applications beyond a distributed cluster of nodes. Kubernetes produces very flexible infrastructure with zero downtime deployment capacities, automated rollback, scaling, and self-healing of containers. Our Cloud Infrastructure Container Engine for Kubernetes is a developer-friendly, managed service that you can use to deploy your containerized applications to the cloud.

  • Supply Chain and Logistics Digital supply chain solutions built in the cloud.
  • Services are used to expose containerised applications to origins from outside the cluster.
  • Try the leading Kubernetes Storage and Data Protection platform according to GigaOm Research.
  • Dan Merron is a seasoned DevOps Consulting Professional with experience in private, public and financial sectors working with popular container, automation and scripting tools.
  • A worker node is a physical machine that executes the applications using pods.
  • A key-value store where all data relating to the Kubernetes cluster is stored.

Just like labels, field selectors also let one select Kubernetes resources. Unlike labels, the selection is based on the attribute values inherent to the resource being selected, rather than user-defined categorization. and metadata.namespace are field selectors that will be present on all Kubernetes objects. Other selectors that can be used depend on the object/resource type.

Kubernetes Architecture And How It Works?

Not only does Kubernetes automate web traffic in production, it also augments the web servers depending on the requirement for the software applications. This guided, hands-on experience allows you to explore cloud services in a live production environment. Accelerate your data-first modernization with the HPE GreenLake edge-to-cloud platform, which brings the cloud to wherever your apps and data live. Kubernetes’ inherent resource optimization, automated scaling, and flexibility to run workloads where they provide the most value means your IT spend is in your control. Kubernetes supports any runtime that adheres to the Kubernetes CRI . It’s important to know the names and functions of the major K8s components that are part of the control plane or that execute on Kubernetes nodes.

It’s a Linux snap that runs all Kubernetes services natively on Ubuntu, or any operating system that supports snaps, including 20+ Linux distributions, Windows and macOS. A service in a Kubernetes is a logical set of pods, which works together. With the help of services, users can easily manage load balancing configurations. Namespaces are a way to create multiple virtual Kubernetes clusters within a single cluster.

What is Kubernetes

Namespaces are normally used for wide scale deployments where there are many users, teams and projects. A traditional micro-service based architecture would have multiple services making up one, or more, end products. Micro services are typically shared between applications and makes the task of Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery easier to manage. Explore the difference between monolithic and microservices architecture. Nodes can be physical or virtual compute machines and their job is to run the pods with all the necessary elements. If a node dies during its run, the cluster adjusts so that the containers still meet the specifications you’ve set.

Users can expect the same behavior from a Kubernetes container regardless of its environment because included dependencies standardize performance. Kubernetes boasts a number of features that help you provision and deploy your own containerized software programs. A control plane daemon that monitors the state of the cluster and makes all necessary changes for the cluster to reach its desired state. Require applications to be written in a specific programming language nor does it dictate a specific configuration language/system.

Cluster Api

These nodes run pods (Kubernetes’ unit of containers) that are connected to master components and manage networking to complete the allocated workload. Every pod denotes a specific instance of an application comprised of one or more containers. Is made up of at least one worker node, worker machines that run containerized applications.

What is Kubernetes

Today, container applications are becoming more and more widely used in software development — the market revenue is predicted to reach $4.31 billion by 2022. It’s containers that enable the quick adjusting of software development and maintenance to changing business needs. That’s why efficient solutions for container orchestration have become a must-have for successful cloud software development projects, and Kubernetes is a quintessential example. A K8S cluster is made of a master node, which exposes the API, schedules deployments, and generally manages the cluster. Multiple worker nodes can be responsible for container runtime, like Docker or rkt, along with an agent that communicates with the master.

The container is the lowest level of a micro-service, which holds the running application, libraries, and their dependencies. Containers can be exposed to the world through an external IP address. Automatic bin packingYou provide Kubernetes with a cluster of nodes that it can use to run containerized tasks. Kubernetes can fit containers onto your nodes to make the best use of your resources. Linux containers and virtual machines are packaged computing environments that combine various IT components and isolate them from the rest of the system. Each node is its own Linux® environment, and could be either a physical or virtual machine.


The provider implementation consists of cloud-provider specific functions that let Kubernetes provide the cluster API in a fashion that is well-integrated with the cloud-provider’s services and resources. Kubernetes provides a partitioning of the resources it manages into non-overlapping sets called namespaces. They are intended for use in environments with many users spread across multiple teams, or projects, or even separating environments like development, test, and production. Kubelet is responsible for the running state of each node, ensuring that all containers on the node are healthy.

What is Kubernetes

Stateful workloads are harder, because the state needs to be preserved if a pod is restarted. If the application is scaled up or down, the state may need to be redistributed. When run in high-availability mode, many databases come with the notion of a primary instance and secondary instances. Other applications like Apache Kafka distribute the data amongst their brokers; hence, one broker is not the same as another.

Containersare lightweight, executable application components that combine application source code with all the operating system libraries and dependencies required to run the code in any environment. Furthermore, Kubernetes eliminates the need for orchestration or centralized control. Kubernetes includes multiple, independent control processes that drive the system towards the desired state continuously regardless of the specific order of steps. This produces a more dynamic, extensible, powerful, resilient, and robust system that is more user-friendly.

More About Containers

An agent that runs on each worker node in the cluster and ensures that containers are running in a pod. Kubernetes maps out how applications should work and interact with other applications. Due to its elasticity, it can scale services up and down as required, perform rolling updates, switch traffic between different versions of your applications to test features or rollback problematic deployments. Kubernetes is built to be used anywhere, allowing you to run your applications across on-site deployments and public clouds; as well as hybrid deployments in between. In Kubernetes, a service is a component that groups functionally similar pods and effectively load balances across them.

If the recent past has taught us anything, it’s that agility is key. Though implementing Kubernetes at first may present a learning curve, its versatility and potential to increase efficiency and offer an agile, competitive advantage are undeniable. Docker and Kubernetes work well together — Docker creates and runs the containers, while Kubernetes is the controller-manager that schedules, scales and moves them. In collaboration, you can easily use Docker to create and run your containers, as well as store container images, then use Kubernetes to orchestrate those containers from one Kubernetes control plane.

Virtual machines are servers abstracted from the actual computer hardware, enabling you to run multiple VMs on one physical server or a single VM that spans more than one physical server. Each VM runs its own OS instance, and you can isolate each application in its own VM, reducing the chance that applications running on the same underlying physical hardware will impact each other. VMs make better use of resources and are much easier and more cost-effective to scale than traditional infrastructure. And, they’re disposable — when you no longer need to run the application, you take down the VM. Before containers, users typically deployed one application per virtual machine , because deploying multiple applications could trigger strange results when shared dependencies were changed on one VM. Essentially, Kubernetes containers virtualize the host operating system and isolate the dependencies of an application from other running containers in the same environment.

In this age of DevOps, companies embrace the need to deliver features and eliminate technical debt in a continuous development and deployment cycle. Microservice architectures and container-based deployments fit in well with this philosophy. Still, on their own, these methods don’t address critical challenges like scalability or the need for services to function in multiple hosting environments. Kubernetes is a breakthrough platform providing cloud-native application management through orchestration, designed from the ground up to support DevOps deployments leveraging containers and Microservices. Manually managing the pods on each node at scale would be virtually impossible without the robust control, automation, and orchestration that Kubernetes provides. As Kubernetes adoption becomes even more widespread, the demand for development/lifecycle management solutions and comprehensive cloud-native application security will only continue to increase.

Kubernetes continuously runs health checks against your services, restarting containers that fail, or have stalled, and only making available services to users when it has confirmed they are running. AppSheet No-code development platform to build and extend applications. Go Serverless Fully managed environment for developing, deploying and scaling apps. Out of the box, K8S provides several key features that allow us to run immutable infrastructure.

What About Docker?

Apigee API Management API management, development, and security platform. Migrate to Containers Tool to move workloads and existing applications to GKE. High Performance Computing Compute, storage, and networking What is Kubernetes options to support any workload. Accelerate business recovery and ensure a better future with solutions that enable hybrid and multi-cloud, generate intelligent insights, and keep your workers connected.

Each cluster consists of amaster nodethat serves as the control plan for the cluster, and multipleworker nodesthat deploy, run, and managecontainerizedapplications. The master node runs a scheduler service that automates when and where the containers are deployed based on developer-set deployment requirements and available computing capacity. Each worker node includes the tool that is being used to manage the containers — such as Docker — and a software agent called aKubeletthat receives and executes orders from the master node. Kubernetes works by joining a group of physical or virtual host machines, referred to as “nodes”, into a cluster. This creates a “supercomputer” to run containerized applications with a greater processing speed, more storage capacity, and increased network capabilities than any single machine would have on its own. The nodes include all necessary services to run “pods”, which in turn run single or multiple containers.

Kubernetes ingress controllers manage inbound requests and provide routing specifications that align with specific technology. A number of open-source ingress controllers are available, and all of the major cloud providers maintain ingress controllers that are compatible with their load balancers and integrate natively with other cloud services. Common use cases run multiple ingress controllers within a Kubernetes cluster, where they can be selected and deployed to address each request. A Kubernetes cluster is the physical platform that underpins Kubernetes architecture. It brings together individual physical and virtual machines using a shared network and can be envisioned as a series of layers, each of which abstracts the layer below. If you use Kubernetes, you run a cluster, the building blocks of which are the control plane, nodes, and pods.

Open Source Databases Fully managed open source databases with enterprise-grade support. Citrix Workspace app is the easy-to-install client software that provides seamless secure access to everything you need to get work done. Minikube is a binary that deploys a cluster locally on your development machine.

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